For ye practice your lusts on men in preference to women: ye are indeed a people transgressing beyond bounds. Of all creatures do ye come unto the males, and leave the wives your Lord created for you? Nay, but ye are forward folk. Family is an important socio-cultural component as it is the unit of the society, which has a huge impact on personality development and a potential factor in different psychiatric disorders.
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Bowlby revealed that the permanent loss of a parent during childhood may increase the vulnerability to certain forms of psychopathology, for example, depression. Karen Horney explained that hostility is not an innate instinct but reactive so egocentrism and antisocial cravings like greed were not inevitable phases of human's development but the expressions of a neurotic process. By helping individuals to grow up under favorable conditions they could develop and lead a healthy life and realize his potentialities.
Islam enforces the family role in Muslim's life and emphasizes the religious, moral, and ethical values, on the contrary to Western society, which started nowadays to suffer from moral decay leading to broken families with increased divorce rate and number of unwed mothers and single parent families. Drug abuse and excessive sexual activities are predominant in adolescents and young adults. These events lead to conflict, loneliness, guilt, loss of self-esteem, which results in manifestation of a variety of pathological disorders.
Despite the fact that the trials of Western societies to substitute the role of family in the life of the mentally ill patients through the help of social workers and care coordinators is a step forward in their care plan, but it is not as beneficial as family role is.
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There is nothing like a family especially if this is a supportive family, which can have a great impact on the illness outcome and the patient's quality of life. Psychiatrist and social workers need to consider the impact of family's involvement on individual mental health, which may be a double-edged blade. On one hand, it may be helpful as the family may help in supporting the patients regarding his medications and psychotherapy, which help to improve the outcome.
On the other hand, as the family unit is sacred among Muslim people and it is very common to find different families with over involvement and enmeshment patterns, who are considered a continuous source of support to the individual. In some cases the family will interfere on behalf of the identified patient, although they too lack in trust, whereas they expect much.
For example, they might try to control the interview by answering the questions directed at the client while they withhold information that may be perceived as embarrassing, they may interfere with his medications and choice of treatments. Therefore the psychiatrist and social workers should educate themselves regarding Islamic values and nature of Islamic family patterns, so that they can in turn sensitively educate the family about the necessary requirement for a workable helping relationship.
Reported evidence shows the magical effect of music to heal the body and strengthen the mind.
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Researchers found that music has a great effect on treatment of depression, insomnia, stress, schizophrenia, dementia, and childhood-related disorders like autism. Regarding the concept whether music is allowed or forbidden in Islam Halal or Haram , we can find different views from Islamic scholars, however, generally music is not considered forbidden in Islam as long as it is a therapeutic need. A thousand years ago, Muslim physicians were at the leading frontiers of medicine and used innovations and different therapeutic techniques that are now considered modern.
They treated mental illnesses by confining patients in asylums with twenty-first-century techniques of music therapy. Al-Mansuri hospital in Cairo, which was established by Malik al-Mansur Sayf al-Din Qalawun in , just like today's advanced hospitals; provided patients with entertainment by light music. The Sufis mention that mental and nervous disorders are cured by music.
The great Turkish Islamic scientists and doctors Al-Razi — , Farabi — , and Ibn Sina — established scientific principles concerning musical treatment, especially of psychological disorders. According to Farabi, the effects of the makams of Turkish music on the soul vary according to the type of makam i. He also outlined the effects of the makams of Turkish music differs according to the times they were effective i. Then the great Islamic thinker and philosopher Ibn Sina — applied Farabi music work in his practice with mentally ill patients.
The work of these two scientists became the base for the developing Turkish music therapy.
Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders
Meditation is based on concentrating on any one idea or object to the exclusion of all other ideas or objects. Meditation works by eliciting the relaxation response. The relaxation response is characterized by decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen consumption, and muscle tension. Meditation by focusing on God's creatures plants, animals, space, human body, etc. In fact, the Quran describes Muslims involved in such a process of meditation as:.
Glory to thee! Other forms of meditation may be enhanced by the recitation of one word or a few words that give the person a sense of internal peace and calm, which is known as remembrance zikr in Islam; for example, by repeating the words subhan Allah glory be to Allah or al-hamdu lillah all praise be to Allah. It also adds an additional factor that helps in stress elimination and that is giving the individual the feeling that he or she is in extreme proximity with Allah, the Controller of the whole world.
Muslims prayers themselves can be considered as a form of meditation and remembrance as while praying, Muslim feels that he is in extreme connection with the controlling power of this world God and that from Him he receives maximum support. O ye who believe! Quran, 2: Recent studies showed that praying reduces postoperative complications following open-heart surgery. Praying also lowers the incidence of depressions in patients following hospitalization.
Recently, it is recommended that praying can be used as an alternative therapy as successfully as meditation, exercise, or herbal treatments. Generally aromatherapy is considered one of the relaxation techniques both physically and mentally and it can help in different psychiatric disorders like anxiety, depression, and dementia.
Reviewing Islamic history, one will find many references to musk, rose, sandalwood, oud, bakhoor, frankincense, myrrh, jasmine, lilies, citrus oils, and other fragrances. Avicenna Ibn Sina, the Islamic philosopher writings record over medicinal plants and essential oils including chamomile, lavender, and countless others. He was the first to perfect the distilling of oils from plants, which is used today to make concentrated forms of aromatherapy oils.
In the thirteenth century, the Arab physician Al-Samarqandi wrote on the aromatherapeutic use of herbs and flowers. In summary, there is a huge impact of Islamic religion and spirituality within psychiatric clinical practice. Using Islamic values and beliefs can be beneficial in treatment of mentally ill Muslims, through incorporation of Islamic beliefs that help in drug adherence and modification of different psychotherapeutic techniques to suit Muslim patients.
Such aspects provide the basis for specific guidelines in working with Muslim mental health clients.
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Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Indian J Psychiatry v. Indian J Psychiatry. Walaa M.
Sabry and Adarsh Vohra 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Keywords: Bio-psychosocial, compliance, Islam, mental health, Muslims, religious psychotherapy, spirituality. Islam from a bio-psychosocial model perspective In Islam, religion and spirituality are not mutually exclusive as you cannot have one without the other.
Depression Negative life events are one of major risk factors for depression. Grief It is a normal reaction toward any life losses. Anxiety As cognitive errors are common to be similar in anxiety and depression, the above examples can be used in anxiety as well. Obsessive—Compulsive Disorder From an Islamic perspective, these unwanted obsessive thoughts are called wasawis plural of waswasah , which are whispered into the minds and hearts of people by Ash-Shaytan Satan.
We find in the holy Quran the counter adaptive thoughts for these obsessions wasawis as called in Islam [So when you intend to recite the Quran, seek refuge with Allah from Shaytan, the outcast. Alcohol and substance abuse Alcoholism is not a huge mental health problem among Muslims in comparison with Western society as Islam prohibits alcohol and substance use among Muslims. Smoking Muslims are forbidden to harm themselves or others. Many Hadiths discuss liwat sexual intercourse between males. Role of family as a part of social therapy from an Islamic perspective Family is an important socio-cultural component as it is the unit of the society, which has a huge impact on personality development and a potential factor in different psychiatric disorders.
Music therapy Reported evidence shows the magical effect of music to heal the body and strengthen the mind. Meditation therapy Meditation is based on concentrating on any one idea or object to the exclusion of all other ideas or objects. Aromatherapy in Islam Generally aromatherapy is considered one of the relaxation techniques both physically and mentally and it can help in different psychiatric disorders like anxiety, depression, and dementia. The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center.
Jan 27, [Retrieved 3 January ]. Bowlby J. Geneva: Monograph World Health Organization; Murdock V. Religion and spirituality in gerontological social work practice: Results of a national survey.
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Hedayat-Diba Z. Psychotherapy with Muslims.
Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders
Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity. Hodge DR. Social work and the house of Islam: Orienting practitioners to the beliefs and values of Muslims in the United States. Soc Work. Mahmoud V.