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Accessed 2 September The Early Church Pelican, p. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church , Cross, F. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. Viljoen Neotestamenica Archived from the original PDF on 16 June Retrieved 13 March A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography. Retrieved 1 August Berdyaev Berdiaev ; translated by Fr Stephen. Early Christian Doctrines , p. Saints and Sinners in the Early Church , p. Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 28 October Lutheran Theology: An Online Journal. The Southern Baptist Journal of Theology.

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The Ausbury Theological Journal. The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent. London: George Routledge and Co. From Ecumenism to Community Relations. Irish Academic Press. This change came in with Vatican II's Decree on Ecumenism, which 'signalled a more positive attitude towards ecumenism among Catholics worldwide'. This change in attitude by the Catholic Church, and the Protestant Churches' reaction to it, was one of the most crucial factors in the development of contact between the hierarchies of the Protestant and Catholic Churches.

The Meaning of Christian Brotherhood. Ignatius Press. Luther Seminary EDU. Associated Press. The Mary of the Gospel and Catholic tradition is in heaven, not on earth. It is the teaching of the Catholic Church that Mary's life is both unique and historical, and as such cannot be repeated, reproduced, or otherwise "reincarnated" The presumed private revelation upon which the Army of Mary bases its claim to legitimacy does in fact introduce new and erroneous doctrines about the Virgin Mary and her role in the economy of salvation history.

It significantly adds to Christ's definitive Revelation. It would have its followers believe, for example, that their "Immaculate" is co-eternal with the Triune God, and that although she was once the historical mother of Jesus, she is now "reincarnated" and "dwells" in the very person of the recipient of these presumed private revelations.

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Time Magazine. Retrieved 26 June — via www. Andrew 22 February Santa Muerte". National Geographic. Spero News.

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Bishops join Mexican colleagues, denounce 'Santa Muerte ' ". Andrew 18 May Huffington Post. Don't pray to her". Catholic News Agency. Beliefs condemned as heretical by the Catholic Church. Catholicism portal. Hidden categories: CS1 errors: missing periodical Articles to be merged from August All articles to be merged Incomplete lists from May All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December NPOV disputes from August All NPOV disputes All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Namespaces Article Talk.

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Belief that Jesus was born as a mere non-divine man, was supremely virtuous and that he was adopted later as "Son of God" by the descent of the Spirit on him. Propounded by Theodotus of Byzantium , a leather merchant, in Rome c. Alternative names: Psilanthropism and Dynamic Monarchianism. Belief that Jesus had a human body and lower soul the seat of the emotions but a divine mind. Apollinaris further taught that the souls of men were propagated by other souls, as well as their bodies.

Proposed by Apollinaris of Laodicea died Declared to be a heresy in by the First Council of Constantinople.

List of heresies in the Catholic Church

Belief that the soul perished with the body, and that both would be revived on Judgement Day. Reconciled to the main body of the Church after a council in led by Origen. Denial of the true divinity of Jesus Christ taking various specific forms, but all agreed that Jesus Christ was created by the Father, that he had a beginning in time, and that the title "Son of God" was a courtesy one. The doctrine is associated with Arius c.

AD — who lived and taught in Alexandria, Egypt. Arius was first pronounced a heretic at the First Council of Nicea , he was later exonerated as a result of imperial pressure and finally declared a heretic after his death. The heresy was finally resolved in by the First Council of Constantinople. All forms denied that Jesus Christ is "consubstantial with the Father" but proposed either "similar in substance", or "similar", or "dissimilar" as the correct alternative.

Belief that the Trinity consists of the Father, Son, and Mary and that the son is a result of marital union between the other two. Described by Epiphanius in his Panarion. The existence of the sect is subject to some dispute due to the lack of historical evidence aside from the writings of Epiphanius. Belief that Jesus' physical body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion; that is, Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not physically die. Tendencies existed in the 1st century, but it was most notably embraced by Gnostics in subsequent centuries.

Docetism was rejected by the ecumenical councils and mainstream Christianity, and largely died out during the first millennium AD. Gnostic movements that survived past that time, such as Catharism , incorporated docetism into their beliefs, but such movements were destroyed by the Albigensian Crusade — Founded by Lucifer Calaritanus , a bishop of Cagliari.


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Deemed heretical by Jerome in his Altercatio Luciferiani et orthodoxi. Macedonians or Pneumatomachians "Spirit fighters". While accepting the divinity of Jesus Christ as affirmed at Nicea in , they denied that of the Holy Spirit which they saw as a creation of the Son, and a servant of the Father and the Son. Allegedly founded in the 4th century by Bishop Macedonius I of Constantinople , Eustathius of Sebaste was their principal theologian.

This is what prompted the addition of "And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son is equally worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets", into the Nicene Creed at the second ecumenical council.

1 John - “The Spirit of Truth And The Spirit of Error” -authority

Considered Melchisedech an incarnation of the Logos divine Word and identified him with the Holy Ghost. It is uncertain whether the sect survived beyond the 9th century. They were probably scattered across Anatolia and the Balkans following the destruction of Tephrike. An overemphasis on the indivisibility of God the Father at the expense of the other "persons" of the Trinity leading to either Sabellianism Modalism or to Adoptionism. Stressing the "monarchy" of God was in Eastern theology a legitimate way of affirming his oneness, also the Father as the unique source of divinity.

It became heretical when pushed to the extremes indicated. Monophysitism or Eutychianism. Belief that Christ's divinity dominates and overwhelms his humanity, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human or the Miaphysite position which holds that the human nature and pre-incarnate divine nature of Christ were united as one divine human nature from the point of the Incarnation onwards. After Nestorianism was rejected at the First Council of Ephesus , Eutyches emerged with diametrically opposite views.

Eutyches was excommunicated in Monophysitism and Eutyches were rejected at the Council of Chalcedon in Monophysitism is also rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches. Belief that Jesus Christ had two natures but only one will. This is contrary to the orthodox interpretation of Christology, which teaches that Jesus Christ has two wills human and divine corresponding to his two natures. The churches condemned at Constantinople include the Oriental Orthodox Syriac , Armenian , and Coptic churches as well as the Maronite church, although the latter now deny that they ever held the Monothelite view and are presently in full communion with the Bishop of Rome.

Christians in England rejected the Monothelite position at the Council of Hatfield in Belief that Jesus Christ was a natural union between the Flesh and the Word, thus not identical, to the divine Son of God. Advanced by Nestorius — , Patriarch of Constantinople from — The doctrine was informed by Nestorius' studies under Theodore of Mopsuestia at the School of Antioch.

Nestorius rejected the title Theotokos for the Virgin Mary, and proposed Christotokos as more suitable. Imre Vallyon. The I Am Principle. Charles Ogada.

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