See diagram of some quite posh back-to-backs in Birmingham "In one of these courts there stands directly at the entrance, at the end of the covered passage, a privy without a door, so dirty that the inhabitants can pass into and out of the court only by passing through foul pools of stagnant urine and excrement. Not surprising then that our girl had an average life expectancy of 26 17 if she was a man.
One outbreak resulted in a pit of 40, bodies. Not much later the bones were dug up to sell for manure, bone meal or to adulterate flour. Even if you survived beyond this age, as a girl working in a cotton mill, especially in the carding room, you would suffer for years with lung disease. Many brave, dedicated people tried to improve things and laws were eventually passed:- The Sanitary Act sewage disposal and water supply provision ; Education Act full time education until 9 ; Factory and Workshop Act minimum employment age 11 but enforcement was patchy and there were many vested interests to overcome.
Mrs Gaskell lived in Manchester from her marriage onwards and all her books are coloured by the people she met and the conditions she saw first hand. I tried to continue this fine example when writing Unmapped Country therefore it contains many issues of the day: industry, social conventions, disease, plus one or two real characters of the time Edmund Potter, calico printer and MP, for example.
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For them this will be an extension of the extreme pleasure they had first time round. However, readers unfamiliar with this enduring classic, need not turn away. The novel stands alone and only entices them to discover the back-story. Will they ever truly understand one another? Or will their opposing ethics and social prejudice force them to seek companionship with more appropriate partners? After a varied career — secretary, florist, bar tender, quantity surveyor - Chrissie Elmore finally found her feet in managing brochure production for travel companies.
Leaving corporate-land, going freelance and departing from husband number two, gave her the opportunity to write and three novels later she can say that the thrill of giving birth to stories is still as strong now as it was when making up tales for her ten-year-old cousin all those years ago.
Back to Featured Articles on. See the original article. About the author Mariagrazia shares View profile View Blog. The highest peaks are in the sharp bend of the arc, where Mount Marcus Baker rises to 13, feet 4, metres. The mountains are extremely rugged and heavily glaciated, resulting in the Sargent and Harding ice fields in the Kenai Mountains on the Kenai Peninsula and the Bagley Ice Field in the eastern Chugach Mountains. Numerous long and spectacular glaciers descend from the crests of those mountains. Elias Mountains and the Kenai-Chugach mountain system have the most-extensive system of highland and valley glaciers in North America, consisting of the Chugach and St.
Elias ice fields. The arcuate physiographic form of the Kodiak-Kenai-Chugach belt is closely paralleled by the structural trends of the underlying rocks. The Mesozoic lithologies, primarily marine sediments and volcanics, have been intensely metamorphosed, folded, and faulted and have been intruded by small to moderate-size igneous bodies. Along the coastal areas on Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska, softer Cenozoic marine sediments are well exposed.
Elias Mountains straddle the border between Alaska and Canada. The Alaskan part of the range is topographically continuous with, and geologically similar to, the Chugach Mountains and joins the southeastern panhandle to the rest of the state. Elias chain, composed of many glacier-fed ranges, is one of the highest coastal mountain groups in the world. It is about miles km long and has a maximum width of about miles.
The chain merges with the Chugach group near the Alaska-Yukon border and with the Wrangells and parts of the Alaska Range to the northwest. The massive blocklike St. Elias Mountains rise from a myriad of narrow ridges and spectacular peaks at 8, to 10, feet 2, to 3, metres in elevation to numerous ice-armoured summits over 14, feet high 4, metres. Mounts Logan 19, feet [5, metres] and St. Elias 18, feet [5, metres] are the two highest peaks. The spectacular St. Elias chain contains the largest ice field in North America, with about half of its glacial cover of some 10, square miles 25, square km in Canada and the rest in Alaska.
The average elevation of the ice fields blanketing the lower regions is 3, to 7, feet to 2, metres. Because of difficulty of access and extensive ice cover, the geology is still little known.
The highest mountains are fault-block in character and consist of uplifted metamorphic granite cores with huge inclusions of migmatite, gneiss, and schist. On the coast and inland flanks, the geology grades into sedimentary and admixed volcanic rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. At the southern end of the St. Elias Mountains , on a peninsula south of the Alsek River where it enters Dry Bay, rises the unique and spectacular fault-block mountain system of the Fairweather Range.
Its ice-clad summit, only nine miles from the sea, is Mount Fairweather 15, feet [4, metres]. At the southern end of the range is the Brady Icefield, and east of the range is world-renowned Glacier Bay , with its largely receding tidal glaciers. Together they represent one of the longest and deepest fjords in North America.
Along the north-south axis of the fjord is the trace of an inactive great fault system known as the Lynn Canal—Chatham Strait trough.
That fault zone bounds the St. Elias Mountains on the northwest and west and continues to the north and west along the north side of the Alaska Range. It continues southeastward through the Alexander Archipelago and thence offshore along the coast of southeastern Alaska and western British Columbia. West of the St. The fault system has been the locus of many major earthquakes in Alaska since the s, including the large quake of March The mountains of southeastern Alaska tie in the Canadian Coast Mountains to the south and east with the St.
Elias range to the north and west. As such, they are a northward continuation of the Pacific mountain system that extends southward into the western United States. They rise to 5, to 7, feet 1, to 2, metres above sea level , with the higher peaks reaching 10, feet. The mountains are underlain by the massive granitic rocks of the Coast Range Batholith, successively intruded in various stages during the orogeny of the late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic about to 50 million years ago. To the northeast and southeast of Juneau , respectively, are the Juneau and Stikine ice fields that feed numerous valley glaciers, some of which extend to the sea.
A unique and distinguishing characteristic of the Boundary Ranges are the inclusion of accretionary terranes—massive zones of exotic rock types rafted into positions that now are some distance inland and are found even on the interior Canadian flanks of the Juneau and Stikine ice fields. Those large and distinctive rock types represent pre-Cenozoic blocks shifted northward along the trace of ancient island arcs along the coast, actuated by tectonic stresses along plate boundaries.
Lying to the west of the Boundary Ranges on the mainland is the rugged and scenic island complex of the Alexander Archipelago. The mountains of the archipelago range in elevation from 2, to 3, feet to 1, metres in the southern Prince of Wales Mountains to more than 4, to 7, feet 1, to 2, metres in the Chilkat Range and the mountains of Admiralty , Baranof , and Chicagof islands. Those islands have small glaciers and rugged coastlines indented by fjords. The archipelago is composed of southeast—northwest-trending belts of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary, metasedimentary, and volcanic rocks.
Metamorphic facies rocks are exposed in the eastern sectors. Those have been intruded by igneous stocks and cut by many high-angled normal and reversed faults. On a regional scale the Alaskan mountains span all the climatic zones found in the state. The northern slopes of the Brooks Range fall within the Arctic zone, while its southern slopes and the Alaska, Talkeetna, and Wrangell ranges all fall within the continental zone.
Both zones are characterized by long cold winters, short cool summers, moderate summer rainfall, and light snowfall during the winter. The continental zone is generally more arid, with clearer skies and more-extreme temperatures. The mountains of the Aleutian Islands and the remaining southern mountains, in particular those of the panhandle, lie within the maritime zone, the climate being influenced by the warm waters of the Kuroshio Japan Current.
Those two zones have relatively small temperature variations and much cloudiness and precipitation, although the conditions are all less pronounced in the transitional zone. With less than 20 inches mm of annual precipitation, the Brooks Range is the driest of the Alaskan ranges, while the coastal mountains from the Copper River delta area southward through the Alexander Archipelago are the wettest, with precipitation sometimes reaching to inches 5, to 7, mm annually.
Vegetation at the higher elevations of the mountain ranges, when they are not barren or covered by ice, is usually a ridge type of tundra, or treeless plain. Above the timberline the upper limit of tree growth , vegetation consists of lichens, grasses, sedges, and heather. Dwarf species of willow and alder also are found, while extensive grasslands occur in the Aleutians, on the Alaska Peninsula, and on the southern slopes of the Alaska Range.
In the interior forests the timberline in many places is less than feet metres above sea level, although it is generally between 1, and 2, feet to metres. The interior forests, consisting of white spruce and birch or aspen, with mixtures of balsam poplar , occur mostly on the lower slopes of the larger river valleys north of the Alaska Range. In the coastal forests the timberline ranges in elevation from about 2, to 3, feet to metres in southeastern Alaska to approximately 1, feet metres in the more northerly and westerly sections.
Vegetation in the lower elevations is a hemlock-spruce coastal forest. Western hemlock and Sitka spruce extend to about 1, feet metres above sea level, and subalpine species to at least 2, feet metres. Tongass National Forest is composed largely of western hemlock, with a much smaller proportion of Sitka spruce and a sprinkling of western red cedar , Alaska cedar, and alpine fir. On the continental flank of those ranges, white spruce and lodgepole pine dominate. Chugach National Forest, in the Prince William Sound section, is predominantly a hemlock forest with some Sitka and white spruce and occasional cottonwood and paper birch.
Several large mammals are native to the Alaskan mountains. Brown grizzly and black bears and wolves inhabit the Boundary and St. Elias ranges, the Alaska Range, and the interior. Black bears, absent from the Alaska Peninsula, are found in most of the state. Dall bighorn sheep live high in the mountains from the Kenai Peninsula to the Brooks Range and southeastward in the interior St. Elias and Boundary ranges. Mountain goats are in the Chugach, Kenai, Talkeetna, St.